The article listed below have been gleaned from the web (1/2017). Most are from scientific research projects but a few are more anecdotal, from sources close to the original Chinese use for Daylilies.

In general it seems that there are a number of components that can be extracted from daylilies. Many seem to have beneficial attributes including, Pesticidal, Antioxidant, Immune Boosting, and even anti-depressant effects.

There are some articles discussing extraction techniques in regard to efficiency and stability. Finally a few articles discuss the genetic variation in wild populations and the locations of these populations.


Various natural components isolated or identified in Daylilies: including a number with antioxidant properties: 7 articles

Neurological effects of Daylilies:2 articles

Pesticidal Atrributes of Daylilies: 2 articles

Tolerance to Soil Contamination: 1 article

Extraction and Analysis of Hemerocallis Constituents: 2 articles

 Analysis and Discussion of the genetic variation of a variety of Hemerocallis (Daylily) species: 2 articles



 Various natural components isolated or identified in Daylilies: including a number with antioxidant properties.

Antioxidant compounds  

As part of our search for sedative substances derived from natural sources, two novel nitrogen compounds, kwansonine C (1) and oxypinnatanine A (2), and two novel salts of quinic acids (4) and (5) were isolated along with four known compounds, fulvanine A (3), icariside D2 (6), sallidroside (7), and (3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-3-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (8), from Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens. These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and chemical methods.


 Antioxidant compounds 

Isolation and Characterization of Stelladerol, a New Antioxidant Naphthalene Glycoside, and Other Antioxidant Glycosides from Edible Daylily (Hemerocallis) Flowers



Daylily (Hemerocallis spp.) flowers are utilized as an important ingredient in traditional Asian cuisine and are also valued for their reputed medicinal effects. In studies of the bioactive methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of lyophilized Hemerocallis cv. Stella de Oro flowers, kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides (19), phenethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (10), orcinol β-d-glucopyranoside (11), phloretin 2‘-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (12), phloretin 2‘-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), a new naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (14), and an amino acid (longitubanine A) (15) have been isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities. Stelladerol was found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 94.6% ± 1.4 at 10 μM in an in vitro assay. Several of the flavonol 3-O-glycoside isolates also demonstrated modest antioxidant activities at 10 μM. None of the isolates inhibited cyclooxygenase activity at 100 μM.

 Antioxidant compounds 

Lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) leaves


Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used as food and in traditional medicine for thousands of years in eastern Asia. The leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation and jaundice. In studies of the aqueous methanol extracts of fresh Hemerocallis fulva leaves, 1′,2′,3′,4′-tetrahydro-5′-deoxy-pinnatanine (1), pinnatanine (2), roseoside (3), phlomuroside (4), lariciresinol (5), adenosine (6), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (7), quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (8), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyransol-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosol-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-6′-acetylglucopyranoside (10) and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-6′-acetylgalactopyranoside (11) were isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Compounds 35 and 711 were found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 86.4, 72.7, 90.1, 79.7, 82.4, 89.3, 82.2, and 93.2%, respectively at 50 μg/mL. Compound 1 is novel and compounds 36 and 811 described here in are isolated for the first time from daylily leaves.

 Antioxidant compounds 

Determination of lutein and zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity of supercritical carbon dioxide extract from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha)


Lutein and zeaxanthin were extracted from daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) flowers using supercritical fluid extraction-carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) at a temperature range of 50–95 °C and pressure range of 300–600 bar. The extracts were analysed by HPLC with a C30 column and an isocratic solvent system: methanol/methyl-tert-butyl ether = 86/14 (v/v). Moreover, the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated by a 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and a chemiluminescence assay to measure the scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar, and the extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. In addition, the extracts had significantly higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays.


► Two major compounds, lutein and zeaxanthin, were identified in daylily flowers employing a very simple HPLC methodology. ► The optimal lutein and zeaxanthin extraction of SFE-CO2 could be achieved at 80 °C and 600 bar. ► The extraction pressure was the most important parameter for SFE-CO2. ► Daylily flowers extracts had higher antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assays.


 Antioxidant compounds , A mannose specific lectin (or protein binds to many viruses, bacteria and yeasts and so presumably has a antibiotic effect?

A new mannose-specific lectin from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) rhizome: purification and properties


A new lectin was purified from the daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) with the yield of approximately 10 mg per kg of fresh plant rhizome. The purification procedure was based on application of the affinity chromathography on the column with yeast mannan and the ion-exchange chromatography on the column with DEAE-Toyopearl. The lectin possessed low affinity for alpha-methyl-D-mannopyranoside, D-fructose, D-turanose and 2-acetamido-D-galactopyranose and hight affinity for the yeast mannan. The lectin bound with greatly less affinity for the mannose-containig glycoproteins, such as ovoalbumin, ovomucoid and horseradish peroxidase. According to the results of electrophoresis in 20% DSNa-PAGE, the lectin consists of subunits of 12 kDa molecular weight. According to the results of gel-chromatography on the Toyopearl HW-55, the lectin's molecular weight is 48 kDa. It agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes very well, while rat and guinea-pig erythrocytes were agglutinated worse, and human erythrocytes were not agglutinated at all. Lectin's dialysis against 1% EDTA or heating to 60 degrees C for 60 min did not stop its hemagglutinating activity.


Antioxidant compounds  

Total Phenol Content and Antioxidative Activity of Fractions from Hemerocallis fulva Leaves


 In this study, the total phenol content and antioxidative activity of fractions from Hemerocallis fulva leaves were evaluated in terms of reducing power, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, the inhibitory effect on linoleic acid autoxidation and metal-ion (Cu2+) chelating effect. Among five fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest total polyphenol content (749 mg Chl/g), and also exhibited an excellent reducing power (1.16∼3.35 at 100∼500 Ռg/ml). SOD-like activities of the chloroform-and ethyl acetate-fractions at the concentration of 100 Ռg/ml showed 33.3% and 22.3%, respectively. In addition, the chloroform fraction showed the highest inhibitory effects (77.5∼90.2% at 25∼100 Ռg/ml) on linoleic acid autoxidation system. Metal-ion (10-4 M CuSO4) chelating effect of the butanol-and ethyl acetate-fractions at the concentration of 100 Ռg/ml showed 30.2% and 36.7%, respectively. Among the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction exerted the highest total phenol content and the strongest antioxidative activity. These results indicate that H. fulva may be useful as potential antioxidant sources for improving human antioxidant defense system. (Cancer Prev Res 17, 18-263, 2012)


Antioxidant compounds 

An evaluation of novel biological activity in a crude extract from Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens M. Hotta

Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens M. Hotta (kwanso) represents an exceptional resource for identifying and developing new phytomedicines for the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of the biological activities of kwanso. Our study resulted in four major findings. First, kwanso scavenges hydroxyl radicals generated by H2O2/UV light system in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Second, hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased when kwanso was orally administered to mice. Third, the oral administration of kwanso to mice showed a tendency to suppress hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen. Finally, kwanso slightly inhibited cytochrome P450 3A activity. These results provide useful evidence in support of the development of kwanso as a candidate raw material for the treatment and prevention of disease.

 Neurological effects of Daylilies

The title pretty much sums it up. Antidepressant-like effects.

Antidepressant-like effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Hemerocallis Citrina and its potential active components



Herbal therapies are potential alternatives and adjuncts for depression treatment. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic Hemerocallis citrina extracts and its potential neuropharmacological components.


Hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were phytochemically analyzed. Behavioral models, including tail suspension tests and open field tests, were performed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the extracts. A possible mechanism was explored by analyzing brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Toxicity and histopathological analyses were performed to determine whether or not the extracts are safe for oral administration.


The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts were mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The extract prepared using 75% ethanol (i.e., HCE75) exhibited the highest active flavonoid content and activity. Orally administered 400 mg/kg of HCE75 significantly induced an antidepressant-like effect, whereas the combination of equivalent rutin and hesperidin dosages exhibited the same profiles. Isobologram analysis showed sub-additive antidepressant interactions between rutin and hesperidin. HCE75 (400 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system. Mortality and lesions were not observed upon oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg HCE75.


The antidepressant-like effects of hydroalcoholic H. citrina extracts are mainly related to flavonoids, especially rutin and hesperidin. The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems may have major roles. The active extract is toxicologically safe for oral administration.


 Another view on the "neurotrophic factor" in Hemerocallis

Ethanol extracts from Hemerocallis citrina attenuate the decreases of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB levels in rat induced by corticosterone administration.

"Hemerocallis citrina (daylily) is a plant widely grown in East Asia that has antibacterial [10], antioxidant [11], and nitrite-eliminating activities [12]. H. citrina has been clinically efficient in relieving depression in patients aged 11 to 80 years [13]. A previous study showed that the ethanol extract of Hemerocallis fulva has an antidepressant-like effect, in which rutin is believed to have an important role [14]. The ethanol extract of H. citrina has been recently reported to elicit antidepressant-like effects depending on monoaminergic systems [15]. Some researchers have also suggested that such activity of the ethanol extract is at least partly mediated by neurotrophic [16] and inflammation systems [17]. However, the relationships between specific H. citrina neuropharmacological activities and its flavonoid components remain uninvestigated. The scientific evaluation of its antidepressant effects are still not convincing."



Hemerocallis citrina, a traditional herbal medicine, has been used for the improvement of behavioral and emotional status in Eastern-Asia countries.


Our previous studies have demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of H. citrina flowers (HCE) reversed the behavioral alterations and monoamine neurotransmitter dysfunctions in stressed mice. However, the relation of its antidepressant-like action with neurotrophic molecular expressions remains unknown.


To clarify this, we explored the effect of HCE (32.5, 65, 130mg/kg, p.o.) on the behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor (TrkB) in depression-like rats induced by exogenous administration of the stress hormone corticosterone (40mg/kg, s.c.).


It was observed that repeated administration of corticosterone induced an elevation on the serum corticosterone levels, which caused the abnormalities observed in the sucrose preference test and forced swimming test (FST). Administration of HCE (65 and 130mg/kg) reversed the changes above and up-regulated the BDNF and TrkB receptor protein expressions in the brain region of frontal cortex and hippocampus.


These findings confirm that HCE produce an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-induced depression-like model of rats and this effect is at least partly mediated by BDNF-TrkB signaling in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

 Pesticidal Attributes of Daylilies

 An extract of Hemerocallis fulva 'Kwanso' was found to have some efficacy against a pathenogenic trematode.

Kwanzoquinones A–G and other constituents of Hemerocallis fulva ‘Kwanzo’ roots and their activity against the human pathogenic trematode Schistosoma mansoni


Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma that afflicts 200 million people worldwide. Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used in Asia for the treatment of schistosomiasis; however, the active principles have not been fully characterized. In our studies of Hemerocallis fulva ‘Kwanzo’ Kaempfer roots, we have isolated seven new anthraquinones, kwanzoquinones A (1), B (2), C (4), D (5), E (6), F (7), and G (9), two known anthraquinones, 2-hydroxychrysophanol (3) and rhein (8), one new naphthalene glycoside, 5-hydroxydianellin (11), one known naphthalene glycoside, dianellin (10), one known flavone, 6-methylluteolin (12), and α-tocopherol. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 111 and the monoacetates of kwanzoquinones A and B, 1a and 2a, respectively, were tested for their activity against multiple life-stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Compound 3 immobilized all cercariae within 15 s at 3.1 μg/mL. However, upon removal of the compound, 20% of the immobilized cercariae recovered after 24 h. In contrast, compound 6 immobilized cercariae within 12–14 min at 25 μg/mL. Following removal of the compound, all cercariae died within 24 h. The adult worms were also immobilized within 16 h by compounds 3 and 6 at 50 μg/mL. None of the compounds had an effect on the schistosomula stage.


 Plant extracts were found to have anti-microbial activity

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Hemerocallis fulva L. grown in Egypt+


Column chromatography of the chloroform extract of Hemerocallis fulva afforded chrysophanol, methyl rhein, l,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-anthraquinone and rhein. The unsaponifiable matter yielded a long chain hydrocarbon, a long chain ester, a long chain alcohol and β-sitosterol. The aqueous fraction yielded choline. The structures of these compounds were established on physico-chemical bases and direct comparison with authentic samples. The plant extracts as well as some isolated compounds have shown antimicrobial activity.

 Tolerance to Soil Contamination

 H. middendorfii grown in petroleum contaminated soil survived well, and could be utilized for such areas. Interestingly, a change in metobolites was observe in the roots when grown in contaminated soil, though the siginificance is unknown! 

Rhizospheric Mechanisms of Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. Remediating Petroleum-contaminated Soil and Metabonomic Analyses of the Root Systems


The effects of a special ornamental plant Hemerocallis middendorfii Trautv. et Mey. on remediating petroleum-contaminated soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China, was studied by a greenhouse pot-culture experiment and the gradients of TPHs were 0, 10,000 and 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹. The results suggested that H. middendorfii had a high tolerance to TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹). And H. middendorfii significantly (P < 0.05) promoted the removal rate of TPHs (53.7% and 33.4%) compared with corresponding controls (31.8% and 12.0%) by natural degradation, respectively. The relative abundance of amino acids, organic acids and sugars and others in soil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PCA and PLS-DA models were to investigate the rhizospheric mechanisms. The results suggested that H. middendorfii changed the distribution characteristics of each component in soil, and the glucopyranoside played a key role in the removal of TPHs. Furthermore, the results about comparative metabolic profile showed that some special metabolites were only found in the contaminated groups, including alanine, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid. Additionally, the exposure of TPHs changed the primary metabolic flux of roots, and caused the significant (P < 0.01) change of metabolites. In conclusion, H. middendorfii might be an enduring ornamental plant for effective remediating TPHs (≤ 40,000 mg · kg⁻¹) in soil. But the exposure of TPHs had changed the metabolic profile of H. middendorfii in roots, which might be the metabolic response of H. middendorfii to petroleum-contaminated soil.


Extraction and Analysis of Hemerocallis Constituents


analysis of various extracts of daylilies in regard to stability, analysis and techniques.




The analysis and stability of carotenoids in the flowers of daylily (Hemerocallis disticha) as affected by soaking and drying treatments were studied. The various carotenoids in the flowers of daylily were analyzed using a reversed-phase C30 HPLC column and a mobile phase of methanol/methylene chloride/2-propanol (89:1:10, v/v/v) with methanol/methylene chloride (45:55, v/v) as sample solvent. Twenty-one pigments were resolved, of which 14 carotenoids were identified, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, violeoxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, and their cis isomers, based on spectral characteristics and Q ratios. Prior to hot-air-drying (50 °C) or freeze-drying, some of the daylily flowers were subjected to soaking in a sodium sulfite solution (1%) for 4 h. Under either the hot-air- or the freeze-drying treatment, the amounts of most carotenoids were higher in the soaked daylily flowers than in those that were not soaked. With hot-air-drying, the amount of cis carotenoids showed a higher yield in soaked samples than in nonsoaked samples. However, with freeze-drying, only a minor change of each carotenoid was observed for both soaked and nonsoaked samples. Also, air-drying resulted in a higher loss of carotenoids than freeze-drying.



Ultrasound-synergized electrostatic field extraction of total flavonoids from Hemerocallis citrina baroni.


The total flavonoids from Hemerocallis citrina baroni are regarded as a green and natural health care product with many beneficial impacts on human health. In this study, ultrasound-synergized electrostatic field extraction (UEE) of the total flavonoids (TF) from H. citrina was investigated. Significant independent variables of the extraction, including the electrostatic field, ultrasonic power, ethanol concentration and extraction time, were optimized using the Box-Behnken (BB) method, and the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction yield using UEE was compared with the yields obtained using only ultrasound extraction (UE) and water bath extraction (WE), using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The best extraction yield of 1.536% using UEE was achieved under the following optimal conditions: electrostatic field of 7kV, ultrasonic power of 500W, ethanol concentration of 70% and extraction time of 20min. The optimal solid-liquid ratio (1:25g/mL) and extraction temperature (55°C) were determined by single factor experiments. Compared to other extraction methods, UEE not only increases the extraction yield of TF but also exhibits an excellent antioxidant activity in assays of the scavenging capacity for DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The availability of the UEE method can be supported by the ultrasonic cavitation effect, which plays the most important role in the UEE method. The electrostatic field can be regarded as a random disturbance for sonication, which can strengthen the cavitation effect and increase the cavitation yield. Moreover, the amount of iodine release in potassium iodide solution well validated the synergetic effect between the ultrasound and electrostatic field.




 Analysis and Discussion of the genetic variation of a variety of Hemerocallis (Daylily) species

Examines the variation in genotypes in several different Hemerocallis species. There is a discussion of native locations.

Natural hybridization of Korean Daylily species seems to be rare though no explanation of why this is the case is not mentioned

Morphometric analysis of the genus Hemerocallis L. (Liliaceae) in Korea : Journal of Plant Research


To better understand the patterns of variability and distributions ofHemerocallis in Korea, 53 locations were visited and measurements of 19 morphological and phenological characters were taken on plants directly from their natural habitats. For morphometric analysis, 10 plants from each of 34 populations and five herbarium specimens ofH. middendorffii were used and the data from 12 quantitative characters was analyzed using univariate analysis. Except the littoral populations of Cheju, Hong, Taehuksan, and Sohuksan Islands (H. hongdoensis M. Chung & S. Kang), three peninsular KoreanHemerocallis species can be recognized mainly in South Korea:H. hakuunensis Nakai (=H. micrantha Nakai, growing on southern, central, and northwestern Korea);H. thunbergii Baker (=H. coreana Nakai, found on southeastern and central Korea); andH. middendorffii Tr. et Mey. (central and northeastern Korea). Morphological and phenological features contributing to recognition of the three groups were; color of perianth, shape of roots, shape of inflorescence, flowering time, odor, length of inflorescence, width of the lowest bracts, length of perianth tube enclosing a ovary, width of the inner perianth lobes. Natural hybridization seems to be rare in KoreanHemerocallis. It appears that the KoreanHemerocallis species are relatively well characterized by their distribution patterns, phenology, and habitats compared with the JapaneseHemerocallis species.


The species Hemerocallis hakuensis exhibits a high level of genetic variation within a daylily stand but interestingly a lower level over the H. hakuensis population as a whole. Apparently there is also evidence of some inter species hybridization with H thunbergii.

Genetic variation and population structure in Korean endemic species: IV.Hemerocallis hakuunensis (Liliaceae) :

Journal of Plant Research


Hemerocallis hakuunensis, a Korean endemic species, maintains considerably higher levels of allozyme variation within populations (meanHe=0.253) and substantially lower levels of allozyme divergence among populations (meanGST=0.077) than average values reported for other insect-pollinated, outcrossing herbs. Indirect estimates of the number of migrants per generation (Nm=3.00, calculated fromGST;Nm=3.57, calculated from the frequency of nine alleles unique to single populations) indicate that gene flow has been extensive inH. hakuunensis. This is somewhat surprising when we consider the fact that no specialized seed dispersal mechanism is known, flowers are visited by bees, and the present-day populations of the species are discontinous and isolated. Results of a spatial autocorrelation analysis based on mean allele frequencies of 19 populations reveal that only 13% (95/720 cases) of Moran'sI values for the ten interpopulational distance classes are significantly different from the expected values and no distinct trend with respect to the distance classes is detected. Although it is unclear how the populations are genetically homogenous, it is highly probable thatH. hakuunensis might have a history of relatively large, continuous populations that had more chance for gene movement among adjacent populations after the last Ice Age. In addition, occasional hybridization withH. thunbergii in areas of sympatry in the central and southwestern Korean Peninsula may be one factor contributing the present-day high allozyme variation observed inH. hakuunensis.


Chinese/English Website promoting numerous herbal remedies.

 Day Lily 

1. For all kinds of mild bleeding:

Use 10 g root of day lily decocted in 100 ml water under slow fire for 15 minutes and serve as one would tea.

2. For general weakness:

Prepare 20 g dry day lily and immerse in warm water until it becomes tender. Discard hard ends and cut into small segments. Also prepare 100 g pork cut into shreds, 5 g black fungus immersed in warm water until softened. Thoroughly stir 2 hen's eggs. First stir-fry the egg and pork. Then separately fry the other ingredients together with vegetable oil, and mix the egg and add some other flavourings. Serve as a side dish. It can be applied constantly.

3. For boils, carbuncles (a collection of pus that forms inside the body) or mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland or breast):

Pound 50 g fresh day lily and apply topically.
Dosage and Administration:
Flower buds are served raw or cooked. They taste somewhat like green beans.

Flowers are served raw or cooked. They can be dried and used as a thickener in soups. If the flowers are picked just as they start to wither they can be used as a condiment.

If the flowers are harvested when fully open they make a superb and very ornamental addition to the salad bowl.

The young shoots have a pleasant sweet flavor and make an excellent cooked vegetable, though older shoots quickly become tough and fibrous.
Cautions on Use:
Large quantities of the leaves are said to be halucinogenic. Blanching the leaves, though, could remove this hallucinatory component, as reported in 'Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.' (Batsford. 1992). This comprehensive book on the species does not make clear what it means by blanching. It could be excluding light from the growing shoots or immersing in boiling water.
Modern Researches:
Day lily contains asparagin, colchicine, iron, carbohydrates, vitamins A, B and C, protein and anthra-quinone A, B, C, D and F.

The juice of the roots is an effective antidote (counteracting poisons) in cases of arsenic poisoning. The root also has a folk history of use in the treatment of cancer - extracts from the roots have shown antitumour activity.

A tea made from the boiled roots is used as a diuretic.

The tough dried foliage is plaited into cord and used for making footwear.